How Often Are Truck Drivers Drug Tested?

If you spend any time on the road, you’re likely pretty aware of semi-trucks and the people that drive them. According to data from the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), 8.7 million truck drivers are in the United States. As a profession, truck driving is extremely demanding, requiring a lot of responsibility and attention to detail and spending long hours on the road driving these extremely large and powerful vehicles.

Given the potential dangers associated with operating large commercial vehicles, it’s critical that truck drivers are fully alert and focused while behind the wheel. That’s why truck drivers are routinely subjected to drug testing to ensure that they are free from any substances that might impair their ability to drive safely. For both the drivers themselves and the other road users they share the road with, drug testing is an essential tool for promoting safety and preventing accidents.

Who Regulates Truck Driving and Drivers in the United States?

The trucking industry in the United States is subject to regulation by several federal agencies that work to ensure the safety and efficiency of commercial transportation. The main regulatory body responsible for overseeing commercial trucking is the FMSCA, which establishes rules and regulations related to:

  • Driver qualifications
  • Vehicle safety
  • Hours of service

The FMCSA is responsible for enforcing these regulations to promote safety on the roads and prevent accidents involving commercial motor vehicles.

In addition to the FMCSA, other federal agencies play a role in regulating the trucking industry, including:

  • The Department of Transportation (DOT)
  • The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)
  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

Overall, these regulatory agencies work together to make sure that the trucking industry operates in a safe and responsible manner and commercial truck drivers are held to high standards of safety and professionalism.

Drug Testing Regulations For Truck Drivers

Drug testing regulations are an essential component of ensuring safety in the trucking industry. Under DOT regulations, all commercial truck drivers are required to undergo drug and alcohol testing at certain points during their employment.

The tests are designed to detect the presence of illegal drugs and prescription medications that can have serious effects on the driver’s ability to operate their truck safely. If a driver tests positive for drugs or alcohol, they will face serious consequences, including:

  • Suspension of their commercial driver’s license (CDL)
  • Termination of employment
  • Further legal punishments, including fines and possibly even jail time


In addition to federal regulations, many trucking companies have their own drug and alcohol policies that go beyond what is required by law. While most of these policies take their cues from federal regulations, they are ultimately put in place to protect both the driver and those that share the road with them. One of the most important aspects of these policies is how often drivers are tested.

How Often Are Drivers Drug Tested?

Generally speaking, truck drivers are required to undergo drug testing at several different points throughout their employment. Rather than specify a set frequency of drug testing, regulations are set to test drivers at the following intervals:

  • Pre-employment drug testing – Truck drivers must undergo drug testing before they are hired or permitted to perform safety-sensitive functions.
  • Random drug testing – At least 50% of all truck drivers must be randomly tested for drugs each year, and 10% of drivers must be randomly tested for alcohol.
  • Post-accident drug testing – Truck drivers who are involved in accidents that meet certain criteria (such as a fatality or the need for towing) must undergo drug and alcohol testing within a specified time frame.
  • Reasonable suspicion drug testing – If a supervisor or other trained official has reasonable suspicion that a truck driver is using drugs, the driver must be tested. Employers who suspect drug use are required to follow specific protocols, such as observing the driver’s behavior, documenting their observations, and removing the driver from safety-sensitive functions until drug testing can be completed.
  • Return-to-duty drug testing – If a truck driver has tested positive for drugs, they must complete a substance abuse program and pass a return-to-duty drug test before they can return to work.
  • Follow-up drug testing – Truck drivers who have tested positive for drugs or alcohol must undergo follow-up drug testing as directed by a substance abuse professional.

It’s important to note that individual employers may choose to test their drivers more frequently than what is required by law, and the specific testing requirements may vary depending on the state.  However, this process is a crucial part of ensuring the safety of everyone on the road and is taken seriously by the trucking industry.

How Are Drug Tests Conducted?

Not only do regulations require drug testing for truck drivers under the above conditions, it also lays out just how these drug tests are to be conducted.  The procedure for DOT drug testing includes the following steps:

  • Notification – The truck driver is notified that they are required to take a drug test.
  • Identification – The driver must provide a valid photo ID to verify their identity.
  • Collection – A urine sample is collected from the driver under direct observation by a trained collector. The collector may also ask the driver to empty their pockets, remove any unnecessary outer clothing, and wash their hands to prevent tampering.
  • Testing – The urine sample is tested for the presence of five specific drugs: marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, opioids, and phencyclidine (PCP).
  • Laboratory Analysis – If the initial test is positive, the sample is sent to a laboratory for confirmation testing. A Medical Review Officer (MRO) reviews the results and contacts the driver to verify any potential legitimate medical explanations.
  • Results – The driver will receive a negative or positive result from the MRO. If the result is positive, the driver may be required to complete a substance abuse program and may be subject to disciplinary action, including termination.

Overall, these procedures are in place to ensure the accuracy and validity of the actual tests that are conducted. This is a critical step for both drivers and their employers, as a positive test could require the driver to complete a substance abuse program and may be subject to disciplinary action, up to termination. Accuracy is also important for the employer or trucking company, as it ensures compliance with these regulations and allows the business to keep moving.

Rideshare Law Office Can Help You

Being involved in a vehicle accident in California is always a stressful and painful situation, but even more so when it involves a commercial truck. The size and power of alone make accidents with commercial trucks much more serious than normal, so when drivers themselves are impaired by drugs or alcohol, it’s even more dangerous. That’s why drug testing regulations exist, but there are always situations that can lead to accidents. When they do, you can count on our team at Rideshare Law Office to help. Contact us today for a free, no-obligation consultation to learn more.